Spices aren’t just good for adding flavor and kick to your meals: They’re good for treating skin infections too. According to a study in the Journal of Medical Plants Research, several compounds extracted from native Cameroonian spices have been proven effective when it comes to treating skin infections, including those from antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Researchers from the University of Dschang in Cameroon investigated whether the essential oils from four Cameroonian spices — Aframomum daniellii (African cardamom), Piper capense (Ethiopian long pepper) and Monodora myristica (Calabash nutmeg) — and a cream based on Aframomum citratum (alligator pepper) essential oil can be used to treat a skin infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The researchers added that while anecdotal references to the plants’ curative properties abound, no scientific investigations have been conducted to verify their antimicrobial properties, as well as their essential oils’ composition.
The researchers also noted that they focused on bacterial skin infections in the study, citing its prevalence throughout most of the globe. In addition, they added that the recent emergence of MRSA has become a challenge in clinical practice.
While conventional medicines are available on the market, these are expensive and often come with toxic side effects. This led to the rise of complementary and alternative medicine usage in up to 80 percent of developing countries, with essential oils being the product of choice for many users.
Essential oils — while primarily used as natural preservatives, flavorings and fragrances in cosmetic products — are potential sources of antioxidants and natural antimicrobials, in addition to their anti-parasitic, analgesic and cytotoxic properties. The team used essential oils from the said spices, which they then tested against S. aureus and other microorganisms normally associated with skin infections, namely Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton violaceum, Enterococcus aerogenes, Enterococcus adecarboxylate, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexneri. The researchers also tested the compounds against several yeast (Candida) species. Their findings revealed that compounds from the oils worked well, with A. citratum seen to be the most effective in the batch.
“Essential oil of A. citratum was the most active against bacteria and fungi, followed in decreasing order by those of A. daniellii, P. capense and M. myristica,” the researchers said in their paper. They also noted that the antibacterial activity of A. citratum essential oil against MRSA and E. coli was higher than that of the amoxicillin that they used as a reference drug.
The combination of A. citratum and A. daniellii essential oils also displayed a synergistic effect, adding that the cream based on A. citratum essential oil and the reference drug Baneocin eradicated MRSA-induced dermatosis in rats after two weeks of treatment. The results, says the team, indicate that the essential oils possess antimicrobial activities which could be a function of either the individual or the additive effects of the identified phytoconstituents.
The results complement the findings of an earlier study in BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, which looked into the medicinal properties of several Cameroonian plants and their effectiveness against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria.
The 2016 study by researchers from the same university, found that six commonly-used medicinal plants — namely, Alstonia boonei, Ageratum conyzoides, Croton macrostachys, Cassia obtusifolia, Catharanthus roseus and Paullinia pinnata — demonstrated antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria, with the researchers even noting that the plants “…could be a reservoir of molecules to fight against MDR bacterial infections.”
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ITMC ask for only the least amount of information necessary, gathering only what we believe is essential for doing business, or for the specific transaction at hand. We let customers know the information we have on them and allow them to opt out of specific engagements.
The goal of this policy is to make explicit the information we gather on our customers and users, how we will use it, and how we will not. This policy is unfortunately longer than we would like, but we must unambiguously address all the relevant cases. We will try and keep the language simple and direct as much as possible.
Part I – Information ITMC.com collects and controls
This part deals with how ITMC collects and uses information about website visitors, potential customers, users of ITMC's products and services, and others who contact ITMC through forms or email addresses published on or linked to our websites.
Part II – General
We collect information about you only if we need the information for some legitimate purpose. ITMC will have information about you only if (a) you have provided the information yourself or (b) ITMC has automatically collected the information. Below we describe the various scenarios that fall under each of those three categories and the information collected in each one.
Information that you provide us
Information that we collect automatically
To improve the user experience of our Site, ITMC may use the following "cookies".
|Disqus||To enable comment and discussion features on our website.|
|Vimeo||To enable functionality with video features.|
|Facebook Connect||To enable functionality with social media features.|
|To enable functionality with social media features.|
|Twitter Button||To enable functionality with social media features.|
|SteemIt||To enable functionality with social media|
|Mewe||To enable functionality with social media|
|Gab.ai||To enable functionality with social media|
In addition to the purposes mentioned above, we may use your information for the following purposes:
Opt out of non-essential electronic communications: You may opt out of receiving newsletters and other non-essential messages by using the 'unsubscribe' function included in all such messages. However, you will continue to receive notices and essential transactional emails.
Disable cookies: You can disable browser cookies before visiting our websites. However, if you do so, you may not be able to use certain features of the websites properly.
Optional information: You can always choose not to fill in non-mandatory fields when you submit any form linked to our websites.
Third-party service providers: We may need to share your personal information and aggregated or de-identified information with third-party service providers that we engage, such as marketing and advertising partners, event organizers, web analytics providers and payment processors. These service providers are authorized to use your personal information only as necessary to provide these services to us.
If you are in the European Economic Area (EEA), you have the following rights with respect to information that ITMC holds about you. ITMC undertakes to provide you the same rights no matter where you choose to live.
Right to access: You have the right to access (and obtain a copy of, if required) the categories of personal information that we hold about you, including the information's source, purpose and period of processing, and the persons to whom the information is shared
Right to rectification: You have the right to update the information we hold about you or to rectify any inaccuracies. Based on the purpose for which we use your information, you can instruct us to add supplemental information about you in our database.
Right to erasure: You have the right to request that we delete your personal information in certain circumstances, such as when it is no longer necessary for the purpose for which it was originally collected.
Right to restriction of processing: You may also have the right to request to restrict the use of your information in certain circumstances, such as when you have objected to our use of your data but we need to verify whether we have overriding legitimate grounds to use it.
Right to data portability: You have the right to transfer your information to a third party in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format, in circumstances where the information is processed with your consent or by automated means.
Right to object: You have the right to object to the use of your information in certain circumstances, such as the use of your personal information for direct marketing.
Right to complain: You have the right to complain to the appropriate supervisory authority if you have any grievance against the way we collect, use or share your information. This right may not be available to you if there is no supervisory authority dealing with data protection in your country.
Our products and services are not directed to individuals under 13. ITMC does not knowingly collect personal information from children who are under 13 years of age. If we become aware that a child under 13 has provided us with personal information, we will take steps to delete such information. If you believe that a child under 13 years has provided personal information to us, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org with the details, and we will take the necessary steps to delete the information we hold about that child.
At ITMC, we take data security very seriously. We have taken steps to implement appropriate administrative, technical & physical safeguards to prevent unauthorized access, use, modification, disclosure or destruction of the information you entrust to us. If you have any concerns regarding the security of your data, we encourage you to write to us at reply@ITMC.com with any questions.
By accessing or using our products and services or otherwise providing personal information or service data to us, you consent to the processing, transfer, and storage of your personal information or Service Data within the United States of America, the European Economic Area (EEA) and other countries where ITMC operates. Such transfer is subject to a group company agreement that is based on EU Commission's Model Contractual Clauses.
We offer publicly accessible blogs and forums on our websites. Please be aware that any information you provide on these blogs and forums may be used to contact you with unsolicited messages. We urge you to be cautious in disclosing personal information in our blogs and forums. ITMC is not responsible for the personal information you elect to disclose publicly. Your posts and certain profile information may remain even after you terminate your account with ITMC. To request the removal of your information from our blogs and forums, you can contact us at email@example.com
Our websites include social media widgets such as Twitter "tweet" buttons that let you share articles and other information. These widgets may collect information such as your IP address and the pages you navigate in the website, and may set a cookie to enable the widgets to function properly. Your interactions with these widgets are governed by the privacy policies of the companies providing them.
We may be required by law to preserve or disclose your personal information and service data to comply with any applicable law, regulation, legal process or governmental request, including to meet national security requirements.
We may disclose personal information and service data to a third party if we believe that such disclosure is necessary for preventing fraud, investigating any suspected illegal activity, enforcing our agreements or policies, or protecting the safety of our users.
You may also contact us at: